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Full text of "The fruit of the homeless life; the Samaññaphala sutta"

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Freely  rendered  and  abridged  from  the  Pall  of 
the  Dlgha-Nikaya 






Namo  Tassa  Bhagavato  Arahato,  Sammasambuddhassa ! 

THE    FRUIT    OF    THE 





A  den  of  strife  is  household  life, 
And  filled  with  toil  and  need  ; 

But  free  and  high  as  the  open  sky 
Is  the  life  the  homeless  lead." 


43,   PENYWERN    ROAD,    LONDON    S.W.  5. 







THIS  SUTTA,  though  dealing  primarily  with  the 
advantages  which  may  be  expected  to  accrue  to 
one  who  zealously  follows  the  life  of  a  Bhikkhu  in 
the  Order  established  by  the  Buddha,  covers  so  wide  a 
field  as  to  be  capable  of  affording  instruction  to  all  who 
aspire  to  any  degree  of  insight  into  the  great  Law  of  the 
Universe.  The  attainments  mentioned  are  naturally 
arranged  in  an  ascending  order  of  value.  While  many  of 
them  are  within  reach  of  laymen,  at  least  partially,  others 
are  hardly  to  be  acquired  by  those  occupied  with  the  cares 
and  duties  of  a  householder.  To  attain  perfection  in 
the  path  marked  out  "  may  take  a  whole  lifetime — per- 
haps many  lifetimes.  But  that  need  not  daunt  any  in 
beginning  upon  the  practices.  A  beginning  has  to  be 
made  some  time  upon  the  march  towards  truth,  and  we 
have  each  of  us  all  the  time  there  is — the  now  !  " 

%*  As  this  translation  is  intended  for  the  general  reader  it  has  not 
been  deemed  necessary  to  add  diacritical  marks  to  any  of  the  proper 
names  that  occur  in  the  dialogue,  seeing  that  these  in  no  way  add  to 
the  substantial  content  of  the  same.  For  the  benefit  of  those 
interested,  however,  the  names  so  marked  are  here  appended : — 
Jivaka,  Rajagaha,  Ajatasattu,  Piirana  Kassapa,  Makkhali  Gosala, 
Ajita  Kesakambali,  Pakudha  Kaccayana,  Nigantha  Nataputta,  Safijaya 
Belatthiputta,  Udayi  Bhadda. 


Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 

in  2007  with  funding  from 

Microsoft  Corporation 



Contemporary  Indian  Beliefs    ....  9 
The  Lowest,  Material  Fruit  of  the  Religious 

Life .  12 

Morality — Right  Conduct 14 

Watchfulness  and  Restraint  of  the  Senses       .  16 

Recollectedness •  *7 

Contentment 17 

Practice  of  Meditation 17 

Suppression  of  the  Five  Hindrances.        .        .  17 

(1)  Craving  compared  to  a  Debt  .         .         .18 

(2)  Ill-will  compared  to  Sickness        .         .  18 

(3)  Sloth  and  Torpor  compared  to  Imprison- 

ment   18 

(4)  Restless  Brooding  compared  to  Slavery  18 

(5)  Doubt  compared  to  a  Desert  Journey  .  18 

The    Attainment    of    the    Jhanas,    or     High 
Ecstasies  : — 

The  First  Jhana — Joy  born  of  Detachment  19 

The  Second  Jhana — Joy  born  of  Concen- 
tration       19 

The  Third  Jhana — Bliss  apart  from  active 

Joy 20 

The  Fourth  Jhana — Perfect  Calm       .         .  20 

(    6    ) 


Meditation  on  the  Body  and  on  Nutriment  .  20 
The  Mental  Reflex  of  the  Body  .  .  .21 
The     Acquirement     of     Supernormal    Powers 

(Iddhi) 21 

(1)  Control  of  Matter  by  Mental  Skill       .     22 

(2)  Supernormal  Hearing    .         .         .         .22 

(3)  Insight  into  the  Minds  of  Others  .         .     22 

(4)  Remembrance   of  Former  Living   (Past 

Births) 23 

Penetration    into    the   Process    of   Life   and 
Results  of  Kamma 24 

Knowledge  of  Rebirth 24 

Destruction  of  the  Banes 24 

Realising  the  Four  Holy  Truths       .         .  25 




THUS  have  I  heard. 
At  one  time  the  Blessed  One,  along  with  a  great 
company  of  Bhikkhus,  abode  at  Rajagaha,  in  the  Mango 
Grove  of  Jivaka  the  physician.  Now  about  this  season 
King  Ajatasattu  of  Magadha,  on  the  night  of  the  day 
of  the  full  moon,  with  all  his  ministers  about  him,  sat 
on  the  roof  terrace  of  his  palace.  And  there,  this  Sabbath 
day,  King  Ajatasattu  thus  gave  voice  to  his  feelings  : 

"  Delightful  indeed  is  this  cloudless  night ! 
Beauteous  indeed  is  this  cloudless  night ! 
Lovely  indeed  is  this  cloudless  night ! 
Calming  indeed  is  this  cloudless  night ! 
Auspicious  indeed  is  this  cloudless  night ! 

What  ascetic  or  recluse  might  we  visit  this  night,  whom 
visiting  our  mind  might  be  soothed  and  satisfied  ?  " 

Then  one  of  the  ministers,  answering,  said  to  the  king : 

"  There  is  here,  Your  Majesty,  a  certain  Purana 
Kassapa,  the  leader  of  a  company  of  disciples  and  fol- 
lowers, known,  renowned  as  the  founder  of  a  sect, 
honoured,  esteemed  by  many,  of  ripe  experience,  long 
time  vowed  to  the  homeless  life,  far  advanced  in  years. 
Let  His  Majesty  visit  this  Purana  Kassapa.  Visiting 
him,  haply  the  mind  of  my  liege-lord  may  know  quiet  and 

But  when  he  had  made  an  end  of  speaking  the  king 
remained  silent. 

Then  five  others  of  the  king's  ministers,  each  in  his 
turn,  spoke  in  identical- wise  of  Makkhali  Gosala,  of  Ajita 
Kesakambali,  of  Pakudha  Kaccayana,  of  Nigantha 
Nataputta,  and  of  Sanjaya  Belatthiputta. 

But  to  the  speaking  of  each  still  the  king  kept 

Meanwhile,  not  far  from  the  king,  Jivaka  the  physi- 
cian sat  saying  nothing.  And,  turning  to  Jivaka,  the 
king  said  :    '  But  you,  good  Jivaka,  why  are  you  silent  ?  " 

(    8    ) 

"  Your  Majesty  in  our  Mango  Grove,  along  with  a 
great  company  of  Bhikkhus,  is  now  sojourning  the  Blessed 
One,  the  Exalted  One,  the  Supremely  Awakened  One. 
And  concerning  that  Blessed  One  Gotama,  the  excellent 
rumour  runs  :  '  A  Holy  One  is  this,  an  Exalted  One,  a 
Supremely  Awakened  One,  one  perfected  in  knowledge  and 
in  conduct,  well  come,  a  knower  of  all  the  worlds,  an 
incomparable  conductor  of  men  who  wish  to  be  conducted, 
a  teacher  of  gods  and  of  men,  an  Awakened  One,  a  Blessed 
One/  Let  His  Majesty  visit  this  Blessed  .One.  Going  to 
see  this  Blessed  One,  haply  my  liege-lord's  mind  may  be 
soothed  and  satisfied." 

"  Let  the  riding  elephants  be  made  ready  then,  good 

"  Very  good,  Your  Majesty." 

And  Jivaka  had  the  five  hundred  she-elephants  made 
ready,  as  also  the  royal  state  elephant,  and  sent  to  make 
known  to  the  king :  "  The  elephants  are  all  ready  and 
await  His  Majesty's  pleasure."  And  King  Ajatasattu  had 
his  women  mounted  upon  the  she-elephants,  and  himself 
mounted  the  royal  elephant ;  and,  accompanied  by 
torch-bearers  in  full  regal  state,  he  passed  forth  from 
Rajagaha  and  proceeded  in  the  direction  of  Jivaka's 
Mango  Grove. 

Then  as  he  drew  near  the  Mango  Grove,  King 
Ajatasattu  was  seized  with  fear  and  alarm,  all  the  hair 
on  his  body  bristling  with  affright.  And  in  great  dread, 
agitated  and  apprehensive,  he  said  to  Jivaka  : 

"  Surely  you  have  not  laid  a  snare  for  me  ?  Surely 
you  are  not  playing  me  false  ?  Surely  you  are  not 
delivering  me  to  mine  enemies  ?  How  is  it  that  from  all 
this  great  company  of  Bhikkhus  not  a  sound  is  to  be  heard, 
not  a  sneeze,  not  a  clearing  of  the  throat  ?  " 

"  Be  not  afraid,  Maharaja.  I  lay  no  snare  for  my 
liege-lord.  I  play  not  my  liege-lord  false.  I  deliver  not 
my  liege-lord  to  his  enemies.  Pass  on,  Maharaja,  pass  on  ! 
There  in  the  pavilion  the  lamps  are  all  lit." 

Then  on  his  elephant,  King  Ajatasattu  advanced  as 
far  as  the  elephant  could  go,  and  then,  dismounting,  on 
foot  approached  the  door  of  the  pavilion.  Thither 
arrived,  he  turned  to  Jivaka,  asking  :  *  But  where,  good 
Jivaka,  is  the  Blessed  One  ?  " 

"  That  is  the  Blessed  One  there,  Maharaja,  sitting 
facing  eastwards  by  the  central  pillar,  with  all  the 
Bhikkhus  around  him." 

Then   King   Ajatasattu   drew  near   where   sat   the 

(    9    ) 

Blessed  One  and  stood  at  one  side.  And,  standing  there, 
the  king  looked  out  over  the  assembly  of  Bhikkhus,  all 
still  and  silent,  quiet  as  a  quiet  lake,  and  his  feelings  found 
vent  in  these  words  :  "  If  only  my  son  Udayi  Bhadda 
might  attain  to  such  calm  as  this  company  of  Bhikkhus 
here  enjoys  !  " 

"  Goes  thy  thought,  Maharaja,  whither  affection 
draws !  " 

"  Dear  to  me,  good  sir,  is  the  Prince  Udayi  Bhadda. 
I  would  he  might  know  such  tranquillity  as  is  known  by 
these  Bhikkhus  here." 

And  with  reverential  salute  to  the  Blessed  One,  and 
extended  joined  hands  towards  the  Bhikkhus,  the  king 
took  a  seat  at  one  side.  Then  seated,  addressing  the 
Blessed  One  he  said  : 

"  I  would  wish  to  enquire  of  the  Blessed  One  touching 
a  certain  matter,  if  the  Blessed  One  is  pleased  to  permit 
me  a  question." 

"  Ask,  Maharaja,  whatever  you  wish." 

"  There  are,  Reverend  Sir,  a  number  of  common 
callings  and  professions  such  as  chariot-driving,  soldiering, 
cooking,  weaving,  basket-making,  accountantship,  and 
others  of  kindred  sort.  All  who  practise  such  callings 
and  professions,  here  and  now  as  presently  visible  fruit 
of  the  same,  earn  their  livelihood  by  them.  Following 
such  avocations  they  procure  comfort  and  cheer  for  them- 
selves and  parents  and  families  and  friends.  They  are 
able  to  maintain  the  practice  of  giving  to  ascetics  and 
brahmins,  which  practice  makes  for  what  is  elevated,  for 
what  leads  to  the  heaven-states,  is  fruitful  in  happiness 
hereafter,  conducting  to  realms  of  bliss.  Now,  Reverend 
Sir,  are  you  able  to  point  to  any  such  here  and  now,  pre- 
sently visible  fruit  of  the  homeless  life  ?  " 

You  admit,  Maharaja,  of  having  asked  this  question 
of  other  ascetics  and  recluses  ?  " 

"  I  admit,  Reverend  Sir,  of  having  done  as  you  say." 

"  If  you  have  no  objection,  Maharaja,  tell  what 
answer  they  made  you." 

"  Where  the  Blessed  One  sits,  or  any  like  to  the 
Blessed  One,  I  have  no  objection  at  all  to  telling." 

"  Then,  Maharaja,  speak." 

"  At  one  time,   Reverend   Sir,   I   went   to  Purana  Contem- 
Kassapa,  and,  after  exchange  of  the  customary  greetings  g^2 
and  courtesies,  I  took  a  seat  at  one  side  and  asked  of  him  Beliefs 
the  question  I  but  now  have  asked  of  the  Blessed  One. 

*  And  Purana  Kassapa  replied  to  my  question  by 

(     io     ) 

saying  that  to  the  worker  of  harm  as  to  the  instigator  of 
the  working  of  harm,  to  the  killer,  to  the  thief,  to  the 
adulterer,  to  the  liar,  no  demerit  accrues — that  though  a 
man  wrought  the  utmost  havoc  imaginable,  no  demerit 
follows  thereform  ;  and  that  though  a  man  were  to  work 
the  utmost  good  conceivable,  neither  does  any  merit  ensue 
from  all  his  good  doing  ;  and  that  in  alms-giving  or  self- 
control  or  truth-speaking,  merit  or  approach  to  merit 
there  is  none. 

"  Thus,  Reverend  Sir,  to  my  question  as  to  the 
presently  visible  fruit  of  the  homeless  life  did  Purana 
Kassapa  respond  with  a  dissertation  upon  the  equal 
indifference  of  every  kind  of  action.  It  was,  Reverend 
Sir,  as  though  one  should  enquire  about  mangoes  and  be 
told  about  bread-fruit ;  or  ask  about  bread-fruit  and  be 
told  about  mangoes. 

"  However,  Reverend  Sir,  I  thought  within  myself  : 
'  How  could  such  as  I  think  of  giving  offence  to  any  ascetic 
or  recluse  in  my  kingdom.  So  I  expressed  neither 
pleasure  nor  displeasure  at  the  words  of  Purana  Kassapa  : 
albeit  dissatisfied  I  let  fall  no  word  of  dissatisfaction  ;  but 
without  either  approving  or  disapproving  of  his  answer, 
rising  from  my  seat  I  went  my  way. 

"  Then,  Reverend  Sir,  I  went  with  my  question  to 
Makkhali  Gosala,  and  he  set  out  to  tell  me  that  the  fate 
of  every  creature  is  firmly  fixed  past  all  possibility  of 
change  by  any  effort  of  will ;  and  that  only  when,  for  wise 
as  for  foolish,  and  beyond  any  power  of  theirs  to  hasten  or 
delay,  the  due  period  of  their  transmigration  through 
forms  has  run  its  course — only  then  do  they  make  an  end 
of  suffering. 

"  Thus,  Reverend  Sir,  being  asked  about  the  present 
fruits  of  the  homeless  life,  did  Makkhali  Gosala  answer 
with  his  doctrine  of  purification  by  transmigration,  exactly 
like  a  man  who,  when  asked  about  about  bread-fruit,  tells 
you  all  about  mangoes.  However,  not  caring  to  give 
umbrage  to  any  homeless  one  within  my  realm,  albeit  but 
little  satisfied,  I  said  neither  yea  nor  nay  to  his  speech,  but 
rose  and  departed. 

"  Next,  Reverend  Sir,  I  went  to  Ajita  Kesakambali, 
and  he  in  reply  to  my  question  as  to  the  present  fruit  of 
the  homeless  life  let  me  know  that  all  talk  about  gifts  and 
sacrifices  and  good  or  evil  consequences  thereof — all 
question  of  this  world  or  any  other,  or  of  the  realisation 
of  any  beyond — was  idle  folly,  lying  nonsense.  He  said 
that  when  a  man  dies,  the  elements  of  which  his  body  is 

(  II  ) 

compounded  go  back  whence  they  came,  and  all  con- 
nected with  him  is  at  utter  end  for  ever  just  as  though  he 
had  never  been. 

"  In  this  way,  Reverend  Sir,  with  his  annihilationistic 
doctrine,  did  Ajita  Kesakambali  reply  to  my  question 
about  the  present  fruit  of  the  homeless  life.  Asked  about 
mangoes,  he  answered  about  bread-fruit.  However, 
though  far  from  satisfied,  I  said  nothing  one  way  or 
another,  but  rose  and  took  my  departure. 

"  Then  next,  Reverend  Sir,  I  took  my  question  to 
Pakudha  Kaccayana,  and  he  in  his  answer  carefully 
explained  to  me  that  nothing  anywhere  existed  save  the 
elements  earth,  water,  fire,  air,  happiness,  misery,  and  life 
— these  seven  ;  that  nothing  is  ever  done  by  anybody  to 
anybody ;  that  when  one  man  splits  another  man's  head 
with  his  sword,  he  does  no  more  than  pass  his  weapon 
between  the  interstices  of  the  several  elements.  In  such 
wise  did  Pakudha  Kaccayana  answer  my  question  about 
the  present  fruit  of  the  homeless  life — telling  me  about 
another  thing  altogether,  like  one  asked  about  bread-fruit 
and  explaining  about  mangoes.  So  from  him  too  I  turned 
away  in  silent  dissatisfaction. 

"  After  that,  Reverend  Sir,  I  went  to  Nigantha 
Nataputta  to  see  what  reply  he  could  give  to  my  question. 
But  all  his  answer  was  only  to  expound  the  '  fourfold 
restraint '  as  practised  in  his  sect.  So  I  rose  saying 
nothing  of  agreement  or  disagreement  and  turned  away 
dissatisfied  from  him  also. 

'*  Then  last,  Reverend  Sir,  I  went  to  Sanjaya  Belatthi- 
putta  and  asked  him  if  he  could  tell  me  of  any  here  and 
now  presently  visible  fruit  of  the  homeless  life  similar  to 
that  obtained  by  those  who  follow  worldly  callings.  And 
Sanjaya  Belatthiputta  made  answer  thus  : 

"  '  Should  you  ask  me  "  Is  there  or  is  there  not 
another  world  ?  Are  there  or  are  there  not  beings  who 
come  to  be  without  physical  agency  ?  Is  there  or  is  there 
not  fruit  of  good  and  evil  deeds  ?  Does  or  does  not  the 
Tathagata  exist  beyond  death  ?  " — if  I  believed  that  the 
case  was  so,  or  that  it  was  not  so,  then  I  would  reply, 
"  The  case  is  so,"  or  "  The  case  is  not  so."  But  thus  I  do 
not  think.  And  that  way  I  do  not  think  either.  Neither 
do  I  think  any  other  way.  Neither  do  1  not  think  this 
way,  or  that  way,  or  any  other  way/ 

"  Such,  Reverend  Sir,  was  the  all-confused  reply  I 
received  from  Sanjaya  Belatthiputta  to  my  question  con- 
cerning the  present  fruit  of  the  homeless  life.     Of  a  truth, 

(      12      ) 

Reverend  Sir,  it  was  as  though  one  asked  about  mangoes 
should  answer  about  bread-fruit,  or  asked  about  bread- 
fruit should  answer  about  mangoes.  And  I  thought 
within  myself :  '  Among  all  these  ascetics  and  recluses, 
this  is  an  entire  fool,  an  utter  muddle-pate.  .  How,  being 
asked  a  plain  question  about  the  presently  visible  fruit  of 
the  homeless  life,  can  he  answer  so  utter  confusedly  ? 
But  I  must  not  cause  offence  to  any  ascetic  or  recluse  in 
my  kingdom.'  So,  signifying  neither  approval  nor  dis- 
approval, giving  no  token  of  my  dissatisfaction,  neither 
supporting  nor  opposing  his  words,  I  rose  from  my  seat 
and  took  my  departure. 

"  And  now,  Reverend  Sir,  I  bring  my  question  to  ask 
it  of  the  Blessed  One  :  Since  all  these  common,  worldy 
callings  here  and  now  have  visible  profit  for  those  who 
follow  them,  can  you,  Reverend  Sir,  make  known  to  me 
what  is  the  here  and  now  presently  visible  fruit  of  the 
homeless  life  ?  " 

"  That  can  I,  Maharaja.     But  on  my  side  I  also  would 

ask  a  question,  and,  as  it  shall  please  thee,  do  thou  reply. 

The  "  What  think  you,  Maharaja  ?     Suppose  that  among 

Lowest,     your  men  you  have  a  slave,  a  busy  worker  who  gets  up  in 

Fruitof     tne  morning  before  you  and  goes  to  bed  at  night  after  you, 

the  Reii-   all  eager  to  know  what  he  can  do  for  you,  anxious  to  give 

gious        satisfaction  in  deed  and  in  word,  looking  into  your  face  for 

Life.         the  least  sign  of  your  wish.     And  suppose  such  a  slave  to 

think  to  himself  :  'Wonderful,  marvellous  indeed,  is  the 

outcome,  the  fruit  of  deeds  of  merit !     Here  is  this  King 

Ajatasattu,  a  man  just  as  I  am  a  man.     And  this  king 

revels  in  every  enjoyment  of  all  the  five  senses  as  though 

he  were  a  god.     I,  however,  am  his  slave  and  drudge,  in 

the  morning  rising  before  he  rises,  and  at  night  lying  down 

only  after  he  has  lain  down,  busy,  anxious  to  please, 

ready  to  run  at  a  nod.     If  only  I  could  make  merit  like 

his  !     How  if  I  were  to  take  off  hair  and  beard,  and  put  on 

the  yellow  robes,  and  take  to  the  homeless  life  !  '     And 

suppose  that  after  a  time  this  slave  should  do  as  he  said, 

and,  vowing  himself  to  homelessness,  should  live  restrained 

in  deed,  in  word,  and  in  thought,  satisfied  with  simple 

food  and  shelter,  delighting  in  solitude.     And  suppose 

that  your  people  should  make  this  known  to  you,  saying  : 

'  May  it  please  Your  Highness,  does  Your  Highness  know 

that  his  slave  that  aforetime  waited  upon  him  to  do  his 

bidding  at  a  sign,  has  gone  forth  from  the  household  life 

and  now  lives  controlled  in  thought,  word,  and  deed, 

contented  with  little,  pleasuring  in  seclusion  ?  *    Now, 

(    i3    ) 

would  you  say :  '  Let  the  man  come  back  to  me.  Let 
him  be  my  slave,  busy  early  and  late,  as  before  at  my  beck 
and  call'  ?  " 

"  No,  indeed,  Reverend  Sir.  In  such  case  we  should 
salute  him  reverentially,  and,  respectfully  rising,  invite 
him  to  be  seated.  We  should  also  see  that  he  was  pro- 
vided with  the  four  necessaries  of  the  homeless  life — 
clothing,  food,  shelter,  and  medicaments  for  use  in  time 
of  sickness  ;  and  arrange  for  all  proper  care  to  be  taken 
of  him." 

"  What  think  you,  Maharaja  ?  In  such  case,  is 
there  a  presently  visible  fruit  of  the  homeless  life  ?  Or  is 
there  not  ?  " 

"  Indeed,  Reverend  Sir,  in  such  a  case  there  is  a 
presently  visible,  fruit  of  the  homeless  life." 

"  This,  then,  Maharaja,  is  the  first,  here  and  now 
presently  visible  fruit  of  the  homeless  life  recognised  by 

"  But,  Reverend  Sir,  can  you  point  out  any  other 
here  and  now  presently  visible  fruit  of  the  homeless 
life  ?  " 

"  That  can  I,  Maharaja.  Let  me  ask  you  a  question, 
and  do  you  answer  as  shall  seem  to  you  good.  Suppose 
among  your  people  there  is  a  husbandman,  a  head  of  a 
household,  a  diligent  man,  a  producer  of  increase.  And 
suppose  him,  beholding  his  sovereign's  exalted  state,  to  be 
seized  of  desire  to  earn  a  like  reward  of  merit,  and  shav- 
ing off  hair  and  beard  and  giving  up  what  goods  and  gear 
he  possesses,  much  or  little,  and  all  his  circle  of  relatives 
and  acquaintances,  or  small  or  great,  to  take  to  the  home- 
less life.  If  now  you  were  told  of  this  man  and  what  he 
had  done,  would  you  order  him  back  to  his  husbandry  and 
household  life  again  ?  " 

"  No,  indeed,  Reverend  Sir.  I  should  receive  him 
with  all  respect  and  provide  for  all  his  just  requirements." 

"  That  being  so,  Maharaja,  is  or  is  not  this  a  presently 
visible  fruit  of  the  homeless  life  ?  " 

"  This  being  so,  it  is  a  presently  visible  fruit  of  the 
homeless  life." 

"  Then,  Maharaja,  here  you  have  shown  you  a  second, 
here  and  now  presently  visible  fruit  of  the  homeless 

"  But,  Reverend  Sir,  can  you  point  out  to  me  another 
here  and  now  presently  visible  fruit  of  the  homeless  life, 
more  choice,  more  excellent  than  these  presently  visible 
fruits  ?  " 

(    14    ) 

"  That  can  I,  Maharaja.  Hearken  and  give  good 
heed  and  I  shall  speak." 

"lam  all  attention,  Reverend  Sir,"  replied  to  the 
Blessed  One,  Ajatasattu,  King  of  Magadha.  And  the 
Blessed  One  spoke  and  said  : 

"  Suppose,  Maharaja,  that  here  in  the  world  a  Tatha- 
gata  makes  his  appearance,  an  Exalted  One,  a  Supremely 
Awakened  One,  perfect  in  knowledge  and  in  conduct,  an 
Auspicious  One,  a  knower  of  all  three  worlds,  an  incom- 
parable guide  to  such  as  desire  guidance,  a  teacher  of  gods 
and  men,  an  Awakened  One,  a  Blessed  One.  And  having 
of  himself  known  and  comprehended  this  universe  of  gods 
and  men  with  its  deities,  its  Maras  and  Brahmas,  its 
ascetics  and  recluses,  the  entire  race,  he  imparts  his  know- 
ledge to  others  ;  in  spirit  and  letter  both,  setting  forth 
the  truth,  excellent  in  its  origin,  excellent  in  its  on-going, 
excellent  in  its  end,  making  known  the  holy  life,  the 
altogether  perfect  and  pure. 

"  And  this  truth  some  householder  hears,  or  mayhap 
some  son  of  a  householder,  or  one  of  lowly  birth.  And 
hearing  this  truth,  such  an  one  is  taken  with  faith  in  the 
Tathagata.  And  wholly  seized  of  such  faith,  he  considers 
within  himself  :  '  Cramped  and  confined  is  household 
life,  a  den  of  dust.  But  the  life  of  the  homeless  one  is  as 
the  open  air  of  heaven.  Hard  is  it  for  him  who  abides  in 
household  life  to  live  out  flawlessly  the  holy  life,  the  alto- 
gether perfect  and  pure.  How  if  I  put  on  the  yellow  robes 
and  follow  the  homeless  life  !  ■ 

"  And  suppose  that,  not  long  after,  he  gives  up  his 
property,  little  or  much,  leaves  behind  kith  and  kin,  or  few 
or  many,  and  shearing  off  hair  and  beard,  and  donning  the 
garb  of  the  homeless,  goes  forth  from  his  home  intohome- 

"  And  now,  vowed  to  homelessness,  he  lives  a  life  of 
strict  restraint  in  conformity  entire  to  the  Rule.  Accom- 
plished in  right  conduct,  he  shrinks  from  the  least  of 
faults.  He  practises  to  observe  the  precepts  of  good. 
Morality  He  holds  to  the  fitting  both  in  speech  and  action.  Pure 
Conduct  *n  ^s  manner  °f  living,  attained  to  right  conduct,  guard- 
ing the  door  of  his  senses,  conscious  and  recollected,  he  has 

"  And   how,  Maharaja,  is  the  Bhikkhu  attained  to 

right  conduct  ? 

The  Five  "  The  Bhikkhu,  refraining  from  all  taking  of  life, 

Precepts,  shuns  taking  the  life  of  anything  that  lives.     Putting 

away  club  and  sword,  he  is  mild  and  merciful,  kind  and 

(    15    ) 

compassionate  toward  every  living  creature.  He  abstains 
from  the  taking  of  what  has  not  been  given  him,  shuns 
taking  things  ungiven.  Taking  only  what  is  offered  him, 
awaiting  such  gifts,  he  abides  heart-free  from  all  thievish 
intent.  Refraining  from  unchastity,  he  lives  the  pure, 
the  chaste  life.  He  shuns  the  sexual  act,  the  vulgar,  the 
common.  Abstaining  from  lying,  he  shuns  the  speech  of 
untruth.  He  speaks  the  truth,  holds  by  the  truth. 
Staunch  and  trustworthy,  he  is  no  worldly  deceiver. 
Abstaining  from  tale-bearing,  he  shuns  slanderous  speech. 
What  he  hears  in  this  quarter  he  does  not  repeat  in  that, 
so  as  to  make  trouble  for  the  people  here.  And  what  he 
hears  in  that  quarter  be  does  not  repeat  in  this,  so  as  to 
make  trouble  for  the  people  there.  Those  at  variance  he 
brings  together  ;  and  those  already  at  one  he  fortifies. 
Concord  pleases  him  ;  concord  rejoices  him  ;  in  concord 
is  all  his  delight.  The  words  of  his  mouth  all  make  for 
concord.  Refraining  from  speech  that  is  harsh,  he  avoids 
rough  speech.  Whatsoever  words  are  harmless,  pleasant 
to  the  ear,  affectionate,  heart-moving,  courteous,  charm- 
ing and  giving  delight  to  all  that  hear  them — such  are  the 
words  that  he  speaks.  Refraining  from  idle  chatter,  he 
shuns  unprofitable  conversation.  Speaking  in  proper 
season,  in  accordance  with  fact,  to  the  purpose,  agreeable 
with  the  Doctrine  and  Discipline,  his  words  are  a  precious 
treasure,  full  of  appropriate  comparisons,  discriminating, 
and  to  the  point.     Such  is  the  Bhikkhu's  right  conduct. 

"  And  he  abstains  from  doing  any  injury  to  seeds  or 
growing  plants.  He  partakes  of  but  one  meal  a  day,  eats 
no  evening  meal ;  he  avoids  eating  out  of  proper  season. 
He  keeps  away  from  singing,  dancing,  and  theatrical 
entertainments.  He  abstains  from  the  use  of  garlands, 
scents,  ointments,  ornaments,  personal  adornments  of 
every  kind.  Big  or  high  beds  he  does  not  use.  Gold  or 
silver,  uncooked  grain  or  raw  meat,  women  or  girls, 
slaves  (male  or  female),  goats  or  sheep,  fowls  or  swine, 
elephants,  cattle,  horses,  mares,  fields  or  lands — all  he 
abstains  from  accepting.  He  has  naught  to  do  with 
fetching  and  carrying  messages,  with  buying  and  selling, 
with  untrue  balances,  false  weights  and  measures.  He 
shuns  the  crooked  ways  of  bribery,  deception,  and  fraud. 
He  holds  aloof  from  maiming,  murder,  abduction,  high- 
way robbery,  wholesale  plundering,  and  every  deed  of 
violence.     Such  is  the  Bhikkhu's  right  conduct. 

"  And  inasmuch  as  some  ascetics  and  recluses,  while 
living  on  the  food  provided  by  faithful  believers,  yet 

(    16    ) 

remain  given  to  injuring  growing  plants,  and  he  abstains 
from  all  such  injuring  ;  and  some  are  given  to  the  use  of 
food  and  drink  which  they  have  stored  up,  and  he  abstains 
from  all  such  storing  up  of  comestibles  ;  and  some  are 
given  to  frequenting  places  of  amusement  of  all  kinds,  and 
he  keeps  away  from  all  such  places  ;  and  some  indulge  in 
many  kinds  of  games  and  pastimes,  and  he  entirely 
abstains  from  such  ;  and  some  are  given  to  the  use  of 
luxurious  couches  and  wrappings,  and  he  takes  naught 
to  do  with  such  ;  and  some  are  given  to  using  ointments 
and  powders  and  other  gear  for  the  tricking  out  of  the 
body,  and  he  has  naught  to  do  with  any  such  ;  and  some 
are  given  to  gossip  about  all  manner  of  worldly  things,  and 
he  takes  naught  to  do  with  such  talk  ;  and  some  are  given 
to  argument  and  disputation  for  pure  disputation's  sake, 
and  he  withholds  from  all  vain  wrangling  ;  and  some  are 
given  to  acting  as  bearers  of  messages,  and  he  withholds 
from  such ;  and  some  are  given  to  cozening  and  canting 
for  the  sake  of  gain,  and  he  withholds  from  such  fraud  and 
hypocrisy  ;  and  some  ascetics  and  recluses  are  given  to 
acting  as  astrologers  and  diviners  and  soothsayers,  as 
exorcisers,  as  reciters  of  incantations,  as  physicians,1  and 
he  takes  naught  to  do  with  any  such  mean  employ ; — inas- 
much as  all  this  is  so,  this  is  the  Bhikkhu's  right  conduct. 
"  And  such  a  Bhikkhu,  Maharaja,  thus  accomplished 
in  right  conduct,  in  respect  of  this  his  restraint  in  accord- 
ance with  right  conduct,  sees  naught  whatsoever  to  cause 
him  to  fear.  Even  as  a  warrior  king,  having  vanquished  all 
his  enemies,  nowhere  sees  cause  for  fear  from  any  enemy, 
even  so  is  it  with  the  Bhikkhu  thus  attained  to  right  con- 
duct. Accomplished  in  this  noble  body  of  precepts  of 
good,  he  enjoys  a  cloudless  happiness  within.  Even  thus, 
Maharaja,  is  the  Bhikkhu  accomplished  in  right  conduct. 

Watch-  "Arid  how,  Maharaja,  is  the  Bhikkhu  guarded  in 

fulness      respect  of  the  door  of  his  senses  ? 

^?d     .  "  The  Bhikkhu,  Maharaja,  having  with  the  eye  per- 

of  the*10  ceived  a  form,  with  the  ear  a  sound,  with  the  nose  an  odour, 
with  the  tongue  a  flavour,  with  the  body  a  contact,  or  with 
the  mind  an  idea,  is  not  taken  up  with  the  image  thereof, 
takes  no  minute  note  of  the  same.  For,  inasmuch  as  the 
organs  of  sense  being  unrestrained,  occasion  is  thereby 

1  Of  course  a  Bhikkhu  possessed  of  medical  skill  may  practise  his  art 
upon  such  of  his  fellow-Bhikkhus  as  may  be  in  need  of  his  ministra- 
tions. He  may  also  upon  occasion  treat  householders  for  their 
ailments,  but  always  without  pecuniary  reward. 

(    17    ) 

given  for  the  arising  of  craving  and  unhappiness,  and  things 
evil  and  insanitary,  he  practises  restraint  of  the  organs  of 
sense,  keeps  a  watch  upon  them,  brings  them  into  subjec- 
tion, and,  attained  to  this  noble  restraint  of  the  senses,  hap- 
piness untainted  within  is  his.  Even  thus,  Maharaja,  is  the 
Bhikkhu  guarded  in  respect  of  the  door  of  the  senses. 

"  And  how,  Maharaja,  is  the  Bhikkhu  accomplished  Recoi- 
in  recollectedness,  in  clear  consciousness  ?  lected- 

"  The  Bhikkhu,  Maharaja,  is  clearly  conscious  in  allness* 
his  comings  and  goings,  in  looking  off  and  in  looking  close 
by,  in  bending  his  arm  and  in  stretching  out  his  arm,  in 
carrying  his  bowl,  in  wearing  his  robes,  in  eating  and  drink- 
ing, in  chewing  and  swallowing,  in  attending  to  the  calls 
of  nature,  in  walking,  in  standing  still,  in  sitting  down. 
Asleep  or  awake,  speaking  or  keeping  silence,  at  all  times 
is  he  clearly  conscious.  Thus,  Maharaja,  is  the  Bhikkhu 
accomplished  in  recollectedness,  in  clear  consciousness. 

"  And  how,  Maharaja,  is  the  Bhikkhu  attained  to  Content- 
content  ?  ment. 

"  The  Bhikkhu,  Maharaja,  is  content  with  the  robes 
required  for  the  covering  of  his  body,  with  the  food 
required  for  the  satisfaction  of  his  stomach.  And 
whithersoever  he  goes,  he  takes  with  him  only  such  things 
as  are  needed.  Even  as  the  winged  bird,  whithersoever  it 
flies,  bears  with  it  only  its  wings,  so  the  Bhikkhu  is  con- 
tent with  what  he  receives  of  needed  clothing  and  food  ; 
and  journeying,  takes  with  him  only  needful  requisites. 
Thus,  Maharaja,  is  the  Bhikkhu  attained  to  content. 

"And   thus   accomplished   in   this   noble   body   of  Practice 
precepts  of  good,  accomplished  in  this  noble  restraint  of  of  Medi- 
the  organs  of  sense,  accomplished  in  this  noble  recollected- tatlon- 
ness,  accomplished  in  this  noble  content,  he  seeks  out  for 
himself  a  secluded  place  of  abode,  at  the  foot  of  a  forest 
tree,  in  some  rocky  recess,  in  a  mountain  cave,  in  a  place 
of  tombs,  in  the  heart  of  the  jungle,  or  on  a  heap  of  straw 
under  the   open   sky.     And  having  returned   from  his 
begging  round  and  partaken  of  his  meal,  he  sits  down  with 
legs  crossed  under  him,  body  held  erect,  and  deliberately 
practises  recollectedness.     Putting  away  from  him  worldly  Suppres- 
craving,  he  abides  with  thoughts  free  from  craving;  he5J?nofthe 
purges  his  mind  of  craving.     Putting  away  from  him  the  Hind- 
stain  of  ill-will,  he  abides  benevolent  of  mind.     Kindly  ranees, 
and  compassionate  toward  everything  that  lives,  he  clears 
his  mind  of  the  defilement  of  malevolence.     Putting  from 
him  sloth  and  torpor,  he  dwells  vigilant  and  alert.     Per- 
ception lit  up,  recollected,  clearly  conscious,  he  clears  from 

(    i8     ) 

his  mind  all  dullness  and  heaviness.  Ridding  himself  of 
restlessness  and  broodiness,  he  abides  composed.  His 
inward  thoughts  made  calm,  he  empties  his  mind  of  all 
disquietude.  Putting  away  from  him  indecision,  he 
dwells  delivered  from  dubiety.  No  longer  making  ques- 
tion of  what  things  are  profitable,  he  cleanses  his  mind  of 
Craving  "  Suppose,  Maharaja,  that  a  man,  having  borrowed 

to™  D^t  a  sum  °*  monev'  should  engage  in  business,  and  that  his 
*  ventures  should  succeed,  so  that  he  should  be  able  to 
wipe  out  his  debt  first,  and,  with  what  remained  over, 
take  to  himself  a  wife.  Such  a  man  would  rejoice  thereat 
and  be  glad  in  mind,  saying  :  '  I  that  aforetime  borrowed 
money  to  engage  in  business,  have  succeeded  in  my  affairs, 
have  cleared  off  my  debt,  and  over  and  above  have  got 
me  a  wife/ 
ill-will  "  Or  suppose,  Maharaja,  that  a  man  has  been  sick, 

compared  in  great  pain,  seriously  ill,  unable  to  partake  of  food, 
ness1Ck~     exceedingly  weak  in  body ;  and  that  after  a  time  this 
man  recovers  from  his  sickness,  takes  his  food  again,  and 
becomes  strong  of  body.     Such  a  man  would  rejoice 
thereat  and  be  glad  in  mind,  saying  :  *  I  that  aforetime 
was  sick,  suffering  and  weak,  behold  !  now  am  I  cured  of 
that  illness,  again  strong  in  body/ 
Sloth  and         "  Or  suppose  that  a  man  who  has  been  bound  in 
TorP°r      prison,  after  a  time  is  released  safe  and  sound,  without  loss 
to^ison.  or  damage  to  any  of  his  property.     Such  a  man  would  be 
glad  at  this,  and  say :  '  I  that  before  was  bound  in  prison 
now  am  restored  to  liberty  with  all  my  property  intact/ 
Restless  "  Or  suppose  a  man  to  be  a  slave,  not  his  own  master, 

Brooding  a{  {ne  beck  and  call  of  another,  unable  to  go  about  at  his 
compare    Qwn  ^^  ^^     ^n^  SUpp0Se  #&&  after  a  time  this  man  is 
Slavery,    freed  from  his  servitude,  becomes  his  own  master,  is  no 
more  thrall  to  another,  is  a  freedman,  able  to  go  whither- 
soever he  will.     Such  a  man  will  be  glad  and  say  :  '  I  that 
of  old  was  the  slave  and  servant  of  another  now  am  a  freed 
man  and  may  go  wheresoever  I  list/ 
Donbt  "  Or  suppose  that  a  man  with  much  goods  and  wealth 

compared  js  Upon  a  desert  journey,  and  that  after  a  time,  safe  and 
Desert       sound,  he  leaves  the  desert  behind  him  without  having 
journey,    suffered  the  loss  of  any  of  his  gear.     Such  a  man  would 
rejoice,  saying  :  '  I  who  but  late  was  toiling  through  the 
desert  am  now  returned  in  safety  with  all  my  goods 

"  Even  thus,  as  a  debt,  as  an  illness,  as  imprisonment, 
as  thraldom,  as  a  desert  journey,  does  the  Bhikkhu  regard 

(    19    ) 

these  Five  Impediments  while  as  yet  they  are  not  banished 
from  within  him.  But  like  a  debt  that  has  been  cancelled, 
like  recovery  from  an  illness,  like  release  from  prison,  like 
becoming  a  freedman,  like  safe  soil — even  so  does  the 
Bhikkhu  regard  the  banishing  of  these  Five  Obstacles 
from  within  him. 

"  And  well  perceiving  that  these  Five  Hindrances 
have  ceased  from  within  him,  gladness  springs  up  ;  and 
from  this  gladness  joy  is  born,  and  being  joyed,  his  body 
is  in  quiet ;  and  his  body  quieted,  he  experiences  well- 
being,  and  in  that  sense  of  well-being  his  mind  comes  to 

"  Then,  sundered  from  desires  and  all  things  evil,  but  The  First 
exercising  cognition  and  reflection,  in  the  joy  and  bliss  that  Jkana. 
are  born  of  detachment,  he  attains  to  the  First  High 
Ecstasy ;  and  this  body  he  soaks,  saturates,  fills  and  pene- 
trates with  the  joy  and  bliss  that  are  born  of  detachment, 
so  that  there  is  no  single  part  of  the  body  that  is  not  pene- 
trated with  the  joy  and  bliss  that  are  born  of  detachment. 

"  Just  as  a  competent  bath-attendant  sprinkles  the 
soap-powder  upon  a  platter,  and  kneads  and  works  the 
water  into  it,  until  the  entire  lump  of  soap  is  thoroughly 
blent  and  pervaded  with  moisture  without  and  within,  so 
penetrated  with  the  moisture  that  not  a  bit  of  it  falls, 
even  thus  does  the  Bhikkhu  completely  soak,  saturate, 
fill,  and  penetrate  the  body  with  the  joy  and  bliss  that  are 
born  of  detachment. 

"  And  this,  Maharaja,  is  a  presently  visible  fruit  of  the 
homeless  life,  choicer  and  more  excellent  than  the  last. 

"  Again,  Maharaja,  stilling  cognition  and  reflection,  The 
through  deep  inward  quietude  the  mind  emerging  sole,  Second 
having  ceased  from  cognition  and  reflection,  in  the  joy  Jhamu 
and  bliss  that  are  born  of  concentration,  the  Bhikkhu 
attains  to  the  Second  High  Ecstasy  ;  and  this  body  he 
soaks,  saturates,  fills,  penetrates  with  the  joy  and  bliss 
that  are  born  of  concentration  so  that  there  is  no  single 
part  of  the  body  that  is  not  penetrated  with  the  joy  and 
bliss  of  concentration. 

"  Suppose,  Maharaja,  that  there  is  a  sheet  of  water 
over  a  spring,  with  no  inlet  of  water  from  any  other 
quarter  whatsoever,  east  or  west,  north  or  south  ;  and 
suppose  that  never  a  cloud  in  the  rainy  season  unlades  its 
burden  into  it ;  then  that  pool,  with  the  cool  spring  Water 
welling  up  beneath,  will  be  soaked,  saturated,  filled,  pene- 
trated with  these  same  cool  waters,  so  that  there  will  be 
no  part  of  the  sheet  of  water  that  will  not  be  penetrated  by 

B  2 

(      20      ) 




the  cool  spring  waters.  And  even  thus  does  the  Bhikkhu 
completely  fill  and  penetrate  the  body. with  the  joy  and 
bliss  that  are  born  of  concentration. 

"  And  this,  Maharaja,  is  another  presently  visible 
fruit  of  the  homeless  life  yet  choicer  and  more  excellent 
than  the  last. 

"  And  further,  Maharaja,  joyous,  freed  from  passion, 
even-minded,  the  Bhikkhu  dwells  collected  of  mind, 
clearly  conscious,  and  in  the  body  tastes  the  bliss  of  which 
the  Noble  Ones  say  :  '  The  man  of  even  and  collected 
mind  is  blest/  and  so  he  attains  to  the  Third  High  Ecstasy. 
And  this  body  he  saturates  and  penetrates  with  a  bliss 
apart  from  active  joy,  so  that  there  is  no  portion  of  his 
body  that  is  not  penetrated  with  that  bliss  apart  from 
active  joy. 

"  Suppose,  Maharaja,  that  there  is  a  pond  of  lotuses, 
blue,  and  red,  and  white,  all  growing  and  thriving  in  the 
water,  immersed  in  water,  deriving  their  sustenance  from 
the  covering  water  ;  from  head  to  foot  those  lotuses  will 
be  soaked,  saturated,  filled  and  penetrated  by  the  cool 
water ;  there  will  be  no  part  of  them  that  is  not  penetrated 
by  the  cool  water.  And  even  thus  does  the  Bhikkhu  com- 
pletely penetrate  his  body  with  a  bliss  apart  from  active 


M  And  this,  Maharaja,  is  another  presently  visible  fruit 
of  the  homeless  life  yet  choicer  and  more  excellent  than 
the  last. 

"  And  further  Maharaja  :  Pleasure  and  pain  now  left 
behind,  with  the  fading  away  of  all  past  joy  and  sorrow, 
in  the  painless,  pleasureless,  utter  purity  of  a  mind  wholly 
calmed  and  collected,  the  Bhikkhu  attains  to  the  fourth 
High  Ecstasy ;  and  he  seats  himself  and  envelops  his 
body  in  cleansed  and  purified  thought  until  there  is  no 
single  part  of  his  body  that  is  not  enveloped  in  cleansed 
and  purified  thought.  Just  as  a  man  might  sit  down  and 
envelop  himself,  head  and  all,  in  a  clean  white  cloth,  so 
that  no  part  of  his  body  remains  uncovered  by  the  clean 
white  cloth,  so  does  the  Bhikkhu  sit  down  and  completely 
envelop  his  body  in  cleansed  and  purified  thought. 

"  And  this,  Maharaja,  is  another  presently  visible 
fruit  of  the  homeless  life  yet  choicer  and  more  excellent 
than  the  last. 

M  And  now  with  thoughts  tranquillised,  purified, 
cleansed,  stainless,  purged  of  impurity,  pliant,  serviceable, 
the  Body.  £rm|y  established,  unshakable,  he  directs,  he  bends  his 
mind  toward  wise  insight.     He  cognises  :    '  This  visible 




tion on 

(      21     ) 

body  of  mine  has  shape,  is  made  up  of  so  much  solid,  so 
much  fluid,  so  much  heat,  so  much  motive  force,  is  come 
of  a  mother  and  father,  is  sustained  by  food  hard  and  soft 
— a  perishable,  erodable,  pulverisable,  breakable,  dis- 
memberable  thing  !  And  with  this  thing  also  is  my 
consciousness  entangled,  in  this  tied  up.' 

"  It  is,  Maharaja,  as  though  there  were  a  gem,  a 
precious  stone,  gleaming,  of  the  first  water,  eight-faceted, 
splendidly  cut,  clear,  translucent,  flawless,  altogether 
perfect,  and  it  had  a  blue,  or  an  orange,  or  a  red,  or  a 
white,  or  a  yellow  thread  strung  through  it.  Any  man 
possessed  of  sight,  taking  such  a  jewel  in  his  hand,  would 
clearly  perceive  :  '  Here  is  a  noble  jewel,  finely  cut, 
translucent,  flawless,  with  a  coloured  thread  strung 
through  it.' *  Even  so,  Maharaja,  does  the  Bhikkhu 
clearly  perceive  his  body  just  as  it  is. 

And  this,  Maharaja,  is  another  presently  visible 
fruit  of  the  homeless  life  yet  choicer  and  more  excellent 
than  the  last. 

"  Pacified,  clarified  in  mind,  the  Bhikkhu  now  directs  The 
his    mind   toward  the   imaging  forth  of  a  mind-made  ^e£tal 
representation  of  body.     And  from  this  body  he  images  Qithe 
forth  another  body,  a  mind-made  form,  with  all  its  parts  Body, 
and  members  complete,  no  organ  lacking. 

"  Suppose,  Maharaja,  that  a  man  were  to  pull  a  stalk 
of  grass  out  of  its  sheath,  such  a  man  would  know  :  *  Here 
is  sheath  ;  here  is  grass-stalk.  The  grass-stalk  is  one 
thing  ;  another  is  the  sheath.  From  the  sheath  the  grass- 
stalk  was  pulled  out.'  And  in  similar  wise  would  he 
speak  of  a  sword  drawn  forth  from  its  scabbard,  or  of  a 
snake  taken  out  from  its  slough.  Even  thus,  Maharaja, 
does  the  Bhikkhu  from  this  body  image  forth  another. 

*  And  this,  Maharaja,  is  another  presently  visible 
fruit  of  the  homeless  life  yet  choicer  and  more  excellent 
than  the  last. 

"  Pacified,  clarified  in  mind,  the  Bhikkhu  now  directs  The 
his  mind  towards  the  various  supernormal  powers.    Being  acquire- 


1  The  idea  is  that  a  man  with  eyes  in  his  head,  and  using  them  for  normal 
the  purpose  for  which  eyes  are  meant  to  be  used — for  looking  and  TY^f^f 
seeing— perceives  just  what  there  is  to  be  perceived,  and  nothing  else  (■*«»»*)• 
beside.     That  is  to  say,  he  does  not  import  into  his  picture  of  things 
anything  of  the  products  of  fancy  or  imagination  ;  he  does  not   tell 
himself  that  anything  else    is    present  but  what  he  actually  finds 
present.     An  exposition  of  the  Teaching  of  the  Buddha  that  would  be 
essentially  complete   might  be  founded  upon  this  one  text  of  direct, 
accurate,  and  unadulterated  observation  of  whatever  is  to  be  observed 
in  any  domain,  and  more  particularly  in  that  of  the  psychological. 

(     22     ) 

of  Matter 



into  the 
Minds  of 

single  in  form,  he  is  able  to  appear  as  manifold ;  and  hav- 
ing appeared  as  manifold,  again  he  can  appear  as  single. 
He  can  appear  and  disappear  in  any  place  at  will.  He 
can  pass  through  walls,  barriers,  or  rocks  as  easily  as 
through  air.  He  can  sink  into  and  rise  up  out  of  the  solid 
ground  as  though  it  were  water.  He  can  go  upon  water 
as  though  it  were  dry  land.  He  can  pass  through  the  air 
like  a  winged  bird  ;  and  in  the  greatness  of  supernormal 
power  and  might,  hold  and  handle  the  very  sun  and  moon, 
wielding  the  body  at  will  even  up  to  the  realm  of  Brahma. 

"It  is,  Maharaja,  as  though  a  skilled  potter  or 
potter's  apprentice  from  well  prepared  clay  were  to  make, 
to  manage  whatsoever  kind  of  vessel  he  desired  ;  or  as  if  a 
worker  in  ivory  should  get  whatever  he  wanted  out  of  his 
ivory,  or  a  worker  in  gold  whatever  he  wanted  from  his 
gold.  Even  so,  Maharaja,  does  the  Bhikkhu  exercise 
whatsoever  supernormal  power  he  desires. 

"  And  this,  Maharaja,  is  another  presently  visible 
fruit  of  the  homeless  life  yet  choicer  and  more  excellent 
than  the  last. 

u  Pacified,  clarified  in  mind,  the  Bhikkhu  now  directs 
his  mind  toward  the  faculty  of  the  Heavenly  Ear  ;  and 
with  this  clear,  superhuman,  celestial  hearing  he  hears 
both  kinds  of  sounds,  those  celestial  and  those  human, 
those  distant  and  those  near. 

"  Suppose,  Maharaja,  that  a  man  travelling  along  a 
road  were  to  hear  the  rattle  of  a  kettle-drum,  or  the  sound 
of  a  tabor,  or  the  tumult  of  conch-horns  and  drums 
together.  Such  a  man  would  know  at  once — 'There  is 
the  rattle  of  a  kettle-drum  ! '  or  '  That  is  the  sound  of  a 
tabor  ! '  or  '  There  goes  the  tumult  of  conch-horns  and 
drums  together  i '  Even  thus,  Maharaja,  does  the 
Bhikkhu  exercise  his  Heavenly  Ear. 

*  And  this,  Maharaja,  is  another  presently  visible 
fruit  of  the  homeless  life  yet  choicer  and  more  excellent 
than  the  last. 

"  Pacified,  clarified  in  mind,  the  Bhikkhu  now  directs 
his  mind  toward  the  intimate  knowledge  of  the  minds  of 
others.  With  his  mind  he  penetrates  and  knows  the 
inmost  hearts  of  other  beings,  of  other  persons.  He  knows 
of  the  mind  that  is  given  to  Passion  :  '  This  mind  is  given 
to  Passion  ' ;  and  he  knows  of  the  mind  that  is  purged  of 
Passion  :  'This  mind  is  purged  of  Passion.'  He  knows 
of  the  mind  that  is  held  of  Hatred  :  '  This  mind  is  held  of 
Hatred  ' ;  and  he  knows  of  the  mind  that  is  free  from 
Hatred:  '  This  mind  is  free  from  Hatred.'      He  knows  of 

(      23      ) 

the  mind  that  is  sunk  in  Delusion  :  '  This  mind  is  sunk  in 
Delusion  ' ;  and  he  knows  of  the  mind  that  is  done  with 
Delusion  :  '  This  mind  is  done  with  Delusion.'  He  knows, 
even  as  they  are,  such  minds  as  are  collected,  such  as  are 
aspiring,  such  as  are  noble,  such  as  are  calm  and  concen- 
trated, and  such  as  are  emancipated.  And  just  as  they  are 
he  also  knows  such  minds  as  are  wandering,  such  as  are 
grovelling,  such  as  are  vulgar,  such  as  are  perturbed  and 
distracted,  and  such  as  are  in  thrall. 

"  Suppose,  Maharaja,  that  a  woman  or  a  man  or  a 
stripling,  young  and  got  up  in  their  best,  should  examine 
the  reflection  of  their  face  in  a  clear  mirror  or  a  pot  of 
water,  if  it  had  a  speck  on  it  they  would  know :  '  My  face 
has  a  speck  on  it.'  And  if  it  had  no  speck  on  it,  they 
would  know  :  '  My  face  has  no  speck  on  it.'  Even  so, 
Maharaja,  does  the  Bhikkhu  know,  just  as  they  are,  the 
minds  of  others. 

"  And  this,  Maharaja,  is  another  presently  visible 
fruit  of  the  homeless  life  yet  choicer  and  more  excellent 
than  the  last. 

"  Pacified,  clarified  in  mind,  the  Bhikkhu  now  directs  Remem- 
his  mind  toward  the  recollection  and  recognition  of  pre-  France  of 
vious  modes  of  existence.  And  he  calls  to  mind  bis  various  Oving^ 
lots  in  former  lives  :  first  one  life,  then  two  lives,  then 
three,  four,  five,  ten,  twenty,  up  to  fifty  lives ;  then  a 
thousand  lives :  then  an  hundred  thousand  lives.  Then 
he  recalls  the  epochs  of  many  .a  world-arising  ;  then  the 
epochs  of  many  a  world-destruction  ;  then  the  epochs  of 
many  world-arisings  and  world-destructions  together. 
1  There  was  I.  That  was  my  name.  To  that  family  I 
belonged.  This  was  my  position.  That  was  my  occupa- 
tion. Such  and  such  were  the  weal  and  woe  I  experienced. 
Thus  was  my  life's  ending.  Thence  departing,  there  I 
came  into  existence  anew.  There  now  was  I.  This  was 
now  my  name.  To  this  family  I  now  belonged.  This 
was  my  rank  now.  This  was  my  occupation.  Such  and 
such  were  the  fresh  weal  and  woe  I  underwent.  Thus  was 
now  my  life's  ending.  Departing  once  more,  I  came  into 
existence  again  elsewhere.'  In  such  wise  does  the 
Bhikkhu  remember  the  characteristics  and  particulars 
of  his  varied  lots  in  times  past. 

"  Imagine,  Maharaja,  that  a  man  goes  from  his  own 
village  to  another  village,  and  from  that  village  to  another, 
and  from  this  village  back  again  to  his  own.  Such  a  man 
would  know  :  '  I  came  from  my  own  village  to  that  village. 
There  I  stood  like  that,  sat  down  thus,  so  talked,  thus  was 

(      24     ) 

tion into 
the  Pro- 
cess of 
Life  and 
Results  of 

ledge of 

tion of 

silent.  And  from  that  village  I  came  to  this  other  village, 
and  there  in  such  and  such  ways  I  stood,  sat  down,  talked, 
and  kept  silence  ;  and  now  I  am  back  again  in  my  own 
village.'  Even  thus,  Maharaja,  does  the  Bhikkhu  recall 
his  previous  modes  of  existence. 

"  And  this,  Maharaja,  is  another  presently  visible 
fruit  of  the  homeless  life  yet  choicer  and  more  excellent 
than  the  last. 

"  Pacified,  clarified  in  mind,  the  Bhikkhu  now  directs 
his  mind  toward  the  perception  of  the  disappearing  and 
the  reappearing  of  beings.  With  the  Heavenly  Eye,  the 
purified,  the  supernormal,  he  beholds  beings  disappear 
from  one  state  of  existence  and  reappear  in  another,  the 
base  and  the  noble,  the  beautiful  and  the  ugly,  the  happy 
and  the  miserable,  each  reappearing  according  to  their 
deeds.  '  These  beings,  alas  !  are  given  to  evil  ways  in 
deeds  and  in  words  and  in  thoughts.  They  revile  the 
Noble  Ones,  hold  perverted  views,  and  following  perverted 
views  incur  an  evil  lot.  Upon  the  break-up  of  the  body 
after  death,  they  are  reborn  in  states  of  wretchedness  and 
misery  and  suffering.  These  other  beings,  however,  given 
to  ways  that  are  good  in  deeds  and  in  words  and  in 
thoughts,  not  making  mock  of  the  Noble  Ones,  holding 
right  views  and  reaping  reward  of  the  same,  upon  the 
dissolution  of  the  physical  form  they  arise  after  death  in 
realms  of  happiness.' 

M  Imagine,  Maharaja,  that  a  tall  house  stood  at  a 
place  where  four  ways  met,  and  that  a  man  possessed 'of 
sight,  posted  on  the  roof -terrace  of  this  house,  should 
observe  some  men  going  into  and  coming  out  of  a  house, 
some  passing  up  and  down  the  streets,  and  some  seated 
at  the  meeting-place  of  the  ways.  Such  a  man  would 
know  :  '  Those  men  enter  the  house,  these  leave  it ;  those 
walk  about  the  streets,  these  take  a  seat  where  the  ways 
meet.'  Even  thus,  Maharaja,  does  the  Bhikkhu  perceive 
with  the  Heavenly  Eye  the  disappearing  and  reappearing 
of  beings,  each  according  to  their  deeds. 

"  And  this,  Maharaja,  is  another  presently  visible 
fruit  of  the  homeless  life  yet  choicer  and  more  excellent 
than  the  last. 

"  Then,  pacified,  clarified  in  mind,  the  Bhikkhu 
directs  his  mind  toward  the  knowledge  of  the  Destruction 
of  the  Banes.  And  he  clearly  cognises  :  '  This  is  111.'  He 
clearly  cognises  :  '  This  is  the  Arising  of  111.'  He  clearly 
cognises  :  '  This  is  the  Ceasing  of  111.'  He  clearly  cog- 
nises :  '  This  is  the  Way  that  leads  to  the  Ceasing  of  111/ 

(      25      ) 

All  this  he  cognises  in  accordance  with  truth  and  fact. 
And  he  clearly  cognises  :  '  These  are  the  Banes/  *  He 
clearly  cognises  :  '  This  is  the  Arising  of  the  Banes/  He 
clearly  cognises  :  '  This  is  the  Ceasing  of  the  Banes/  He 
clearly  cognises  :  '  This  is  the  Way  that  leads  to  the 
Ceasing  of  the  Banes/  All  this  he  cognises  in  accordance 
with  truth  and  fact.  And  thus  cognising,  thus  beholding, 
his  mind  is  delivered  from  the  Bane  of  Passion,  his  mind 
is  released  from  the  Bane  of  Craving  for  Existence,  his 
mind  is  set  free  from  the  Bane  of  Ignorance.  And  this 
knowledge  is  his  :  *  In  being  delivered,  I  have  deliverance/ 
Clearly  he  cognises  :  '  Rebirth  is  at  an  end  ;  the  holy  life 
fulfilled  ;  done  all  that  was  to  do  ;  this  world  is  no  more 
for  ever/ 

"  Imagine,  Maharaja,  that  up  among  the  hills  there 
is  a  tarn,  clear,  tranquil,  translucent ;  and  that  a  man 
possessed  of  sight  stands  on  its  bank  and  looks  down  at 
the  shells  and  pebbles  and  sand  below,  and  at  the  droves 
of  fish  as  they  move  hither  and  thither,  or  remain  still. 
Such  a  man  would  know  :  '  This  tarn  is  clear,  tranquil, 
translucent.  There  are  the  shells  and  the  pebbles  and 
the  sand ;  and  there  are  the  shoals  of  fish  darting  about 
or  staying  still/  Even  thus,  Maharaja,  does  the  Bhikkhu  Realising 
as  clearly  cognise  :  '  This  is  111,  this  the  Coming  of  111,  the  Four 
this  the  Ending  of  111,  this  the  Way  that  leads  to  the  § £5^ 
Ending  of  111.  There  is  Bane,  there  the  Origin  of  Bane, 
there  the  Destruction  of  Bane,  there  the  Path  that  con- 
ducts to  the  Destruction  of  Bane. '  And  thus  knowing,  thus 
perceiving,  he  wins  free  from  the  Banes  of  Passion  and 
Lust  of  Living  and  Ignorance.  And  this  knowledge  is 
his  :  '  Deliverance  is  mine.  Birth  is  ended,  the  holy  life 
lived  out,  done  all  that  was  to  do,  the  world  at  an  end  for 
ever  ! ' 

"  And  this,  Maharaja,  is  a  presently  visible  fruit  of 
the  homeless  life  yet  choicer  and  more  excellent  than  any 
that  have  gone  before.  Yea,  Maharaja,  than  this  visibly 
present  fruit  of  the  homeless  life,  other  more  choice  or 
more  excellent  there  is  none." 

When  thus  the  Blessed  One  had  made  an  end  of 
speaking,  King  Ajatasattu  of  Magadha  spoke  and  said  : 

"  Excellent,  Reverend  Sir,  O  most  excellent !  It  is, 
Reverend  Sir,  as  though  what  had  been  thrown  down 

1  The  "  Banes  "  are  those  things  baneful  to  perfect  peace  of  mind — 
sensual  craving,  craving  for  conditioned  existence,  attachment  to 
views  or  opinions,  and  ignorance  of  the  real  facts  of  conditioned 
existence,  as  of  the  way  to  deliverance  therefrom. 

(      26      ) 

were  set  up  straight  again,  what  had  been  covered  over 
revealed,  his  right  way  shown  to  one  gone  astray,  a  lamp 
brought  into  a  dark  place  so  that  any  one  with  eyes  can 
see.  Even  thus  by  the  Blessed  One  has  the  Truth  been 
made  known.  And  I,  Reverend  Sir,  I  put  my  confidence 
in  the  Blessed  One,  and  in  the  Truth,  and  in  the  Order  of 
Bhikkhus.  Misdeed  is  mine,  Reverend  Sir  ;  I  have  fallen 
into  evil,  being  foolish,  all  astray,  all  amiss.  Making  for 
the  throne,  I  took  the  life  of  my  righteous  father,  the  just 
king.  May  the  Blessed  One  accept  this  as  my  confession 
of  fault,  in  order  to  my  restraint  for  the  future." 

u  Verily,  Maharaja,  into  evil  have  you  fallen  in  acting 
thus.  But,  Maharaja,  in  so  far  as  having  seen  your  fault 
to  be  fault,  you  honestly  acknowledge  it  such,  we  accept 
this  acknowledgment  from  you.  For  this  is  even  the  way 
in  the  discipline  of  the  Noble  Ones,  that  when  any  one 
recognises  his  fault  as  fault,  and  honestly  confesses  it  such, 
in  the  future  he  attains  to  restraint.' ' 

When  the  Blessed  One  thus  had  spoken,  King 
Ajatasattu,  addressing  the  Blessed  One,  said  : 

"  But  now,  Reverend  Sir,  it  is  time  for  us  to  go.  We 
have  much  business  on  hand,  much  to  do." 

"  If  now  it  seems  to  thee  time,  Maharaja." 

Then  King  Ajatasattu,  pleased  and  delighted  with 
the  words  of  the  Blessed  One,  rose  from  his  seat,  and, 
saluting  the  Blessed  One  with  reverence,  passed  round 
with  his  right  shoulder  toward  him,  and  so  took  his 

And  not  long  after  King  Ajatasattu  had  gone, 
addressing  the  Bhikkhus,  the  Blessed  One  said  : 

"  Moved  was  this  king,  O  Bhikkhus  ;  much  stirred 
was  this  king,  O  Bhikkhus.  If,  O  Bhikkhus,  this  king 
had  not  slain  his  righteous  father,  there,  even  where  he  sat, 
the  stainless,  flawless  Eye  of  Truth  x  would  have  come  to 

So  spake  the  Blessed  One.  Pleased  and  rejoiced 
were  the  Bhikkhus  at  the  words  which  the  Blessed  One 

1  The  "  Eye  of  Truth"  is  the  faculty  which  enables  its  possessor  to 
perceive  the  ultimate  fact,  infelicity,  and  the  cause  and  cure  of  the 



During  the  past  nine  years  the  Buddhist  Society  of  Great  Britain 
and  Ireland  (now  Incorporated)  has  steadily  and  unswervingly  pursued 
its  appointed  task  of  extending  the  knowledge  of  the  teaching  of  the 
Buddha.  By  translations,  commentaries,  and  numerous  articles  in  its 
quarterly  publication,  the  Buddhist  Review,  it  has  sought  to  make 
known  to  the  West  that  excellent  eight-fold  path  opened  out  by  the 
Buddha — "  the  safe,  the  good,  the  joy-procuring  road  of  Right  Views, 
Aims,  Speech,  Action,  Livelihood,  Endeavour,  Mindfulness,  and 

Two  years  ago  the  Society  moved  into  its  present  Headquarters,  and 
the  hope  was  expressed  at  the  time  that  the  Society  might  have  at  an 
early  date,  for  a  guest,  a  Bhikkhu.  Various  causes  have  hitherto 
prevented  the  realisation  of  this  aim  ;  but  it  is  now  widely  felt  that  an 
effort  should  be  made  to  enable  those  interested  in  the  Teaching  to 
learn  its  deep  truths,  not  merely  from  books,  but  by  intercourse  with 
a  member  of  that  Brotherhood  devoted  to  its. service. 

The  Council  has  ascertained  that  a  learned  Bhikkhu,  who  has  trans- 
lated into  English  many  valuable  pasages  from  the  ancient  Buddhist 
writings,  and  whose  name  is  known  to  all  our  members,  is  willing  to  live 
at  the  Headquarters.  His  presence  here  would  certainly  prove  of  the 
greatest  help  to  Buddhists  throughout  the  world,  and  the  service  he 
freely  offers  in  connection  with  the  Buddhist  Review  would  greatly 
enhance  its  value.  This  opportunity  having  been  offered  to  us,  it  is 
for  Buddhist  lay-people  everywhere,  and  for  members  of  this  Society 
in  particular,  to  decide  whether  or  not  there  shall  be  in  England  a 
representative  of  the  Sangha,  which  Sir  Edwin  Arnold  has  well  described 
as — 

"  That  noble  Order  of  the  Yellow  Robe 
Which  to  this  day  standeth  to  help  the  World." 

As  doubts  have  been  expressed  as  to  whether  the  Buddhist  Society  of 
Great  Britain  and  Ireland  (Incorporated)  are  empowered  to  administer 
the  Bhikkhu  Fund,  some  members  of  the  Council  of  that  Society  and 
others  have  formed  an  Association  to  be  known  as  the  Buddhist  Associa- 
tion in  England,  for  the  purpose  of  serving  as  a  reception  committee 
to  the  Bhikkhu  and  of  administering  the  Bhikkhu  Fund  generally. 
Subscriptions  and  donations  will  be  gladly  received  in  Burma  by  U 
Kyaw  Yan,  A.T.M.,  Mandalay,  or  Mrs.  M.  M.  Hla  Oung,  Elgindale, 
2A,  Pagoda  Road,  Rangoon  ;  in  Ceylon  by  the  Honorary  Secretary  of 
the  Galle  Branch  of  the  Society,  Proctor  A.  D.  Jayasundere,  Unawa- 
tuna,  Galle,  Ceylon  ;  and  by  the  Honorary  Secretary,  Mr.  F.  E.  Balls, 
at  the  Society's  Headquarters,  43,  Penywern  Road,  Earls  Court, 
London,  S.W.  5. 

CDe  Buddhist  Society  or 
Great  Britain  $  Ireland. 


Headquarters :  43,  PEHYWERN  ROAD,  EARLS  COURT, 
LOUDON,  S.W.  5. 


In  all,  the  primal  element  is  mind ;  pre-eminent  is  mind ;  by  mind 
is  all  made.  If  a  man  speaks  or  acts  uprightness  of  mind,  happiness 
follows  him  close  like  his  never-departing  shadow. 

We  live  happily  indeed,  not  hating  those  who  hate  us  ;  among  men 
who  hate  us,  we  dwell  free  from  hatred. 

From  greed  comes  grief,  from  greed  comes  fear;  he  who  is  free 
from  greed  knows  neither  grief  nor  fear. 

Kinsmen,  friends  and  lovers  salute  a  man  who  has  been  long  away 
and  returns  safe  from  afar.  In  like  manner  his  good  works  receive 
him  who  has  done  good  and  has  gone  from  this  world  to  the  other. 

The  sages  who  injure  nobody,  and  who  always  control  their  body, 
will  go  the  Unchangeable,  where  they  will  suffer  no  more. 

Make  thyself  an  island,  work  hard,  be  wise  !  When  thy  infirmities 
are  blown  away,  and  thou  art  free  from  guilt,  thou  wilt  not  enter  again 
into  birth  and  decay. 

If  a  man  looks  after  the  faults  of  others  and  is  always  inclined  to  be 
offended,  his  own  passions  will  grow,  and  he  is  far  from  the  destruction 
of  passions. 

Not  to  commit  any  sin,  to  do  what  is  right,  and  to  purify  one's 
mind, — that  is  the  teaching  of  all  the  Buddhas. 


And  now,  friends,  desires  are  evil  and  hatreds  are  evil ;  and  for 
the  getting  rid  of  desires  and  hatreds  there  is  a  Middle  Way,  vision  and 
knowledge-bestowing,  which  leads  to  Cessation,  to  Insight,  to  the 
Supreme  Awakening,  to  Nibbana.  And  what  is  that  Middle  Way  ? 
It  is  even  the  Excellent  Eight-fold  Path  of  Right  Understanding,  Right 
Mindedness,  Right  Speech,  Right  Action,  Right  Living,  Right  Effort, 
Right  Recollectedness,  Right  Meditation. 

Majjhima  Nikaya. 

"  One  thing  only  do  I  teach,  Brothers — 
Sorrow  and  the  Cure  of  Sorrow." 

About  483  B.C.  the  Buddha  brought  to  realization  those  truths 
which  have  proved  of  such  consolation  and  benefit  to  countless  myriads 
of  suffering  humanity  and  all  living  things.  His  teaching  has  not  only 
permeated  the  East,  but,  by  the  missionary  effort  of  its  earlier  years, 
largely  influenced  the  religion  and  literature  of  the  West.  As  an  ethical 
system,  it  sets  up  a  rule  of  righteousness  that  has  invariably,  whenever 
followed,  led  to  better  and  happier  living.  Looking  the  universe  fairly 
in  the  face,  and  strictly  basing  its  teachings  upon  what  it  finds  there,  it 
points  forward  from  the  world's  sorrow  to  the  great  ultimate  Peace. 
Its  science  is  in  harmony  with,  and  in  many  respects  has  antedated,  the 
best  results  of  the  moderns. 


The  objects  of  the  Society  are  to  promote  a  wider  knowledge  of  the 
tenets  of  Buddhism,  and  the  study  of  Pali  and  Sanscrit  Buddhist 
literature.  These  objects  the  Society  will  prosecute,  (a)  by  printing  and 
circulating  works  on  Buddhism,  Pali  Texts  and  translations  of  Buddhist 
Scriptures,  etc.  ;  (b)  by  promoting  Buddhist  Education  ;  and  (c)  by 
arranging  for  the  delivery  of  Lectures,  etc.,  on  Buddhist  subjects,  and 
in  such  other  manner  as  may  hereafter  commend  itself  to  the  Council. 


Fellowship  or  Associateship  of  the  Buddhist  Society  of  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland,  whether  Honorary,  General  or  Corresponding,  is 
open  to  all  persons,  irrespective  of  their  religious  beliefs,  and  does  not 
imply  more  than  an  interest  in  one  or  other  of  the  objects  of  the  Society. 

Applicants  for  Fellowship  or  Associateship  should  fill  in  an  Applica- 
tion Form  and  send  it,  together  with  the  prescribed  Annual  Subscription 
in  advance,  to  the  Hon.  Treasurer.     Election  is  by  the  Council. 

Fellows. — The  Annual  Subscription  to  the  Buddhist  Society  is 
One  Guinea  for  Fellows,  payable  in  advance.  Fellows  are  entitled  to 
take  part  in  all  General  Meetings,  to  vote  thereat,  and  are  eligible  for  all 
other  privileges  of  the  Society  and  qualified  to  hold  office. 

Associates. — The  Annual  Subscription  for  Associates  is  Half  a 
Guinea,  payable  in  advance,  with  the  privilege  at  present  of  receiving 
the  Buddhist  Review,  and  such  other  publications  as  the  Council  may 
from  time  to  time  determine. 

The  Buddhist  Society  has  been  established  for  all  who  are  in  any 
way  interested  in  Buddhism,  regardless  of  creed.  Its  organ  is  the 
Buddhist  Review  (quarterly).     Other  publications  are  issued. 

Meetings  are  held  by  the  Society  every  Sunday  evening,  at  6.30 
o'clock,  except  during  the  month  of  August,  at  the  Headquarters. 
Admission  Free. 

The  Society  has  now  the  following  funds  to  sustain  the  various 
branches  of  its  work  : — 

1.    The  General  Fund.  3.    The  Bhikkhu  Fund. 

a.    The  Housing  Fund.  4.    The  Publication  Fund. 

Subscriptions  and  donations  to  any  of  these  funds  will  be  gratefully 
-acknowledge*!  by  the  Hon.  Treasurer. 

Headquarters  : 
43,  Penywern  Road,  Earls  Court,  London,  S.W.  5. 


The  following  publications  are  on  sale  at — 

43,  Penywern  Rd.,  London,  S.W.  5  (close  to  Earls  Court  Station). 

The  Buddhist  ReYiew.  60  pp.,  8vo.  Single  copies,  is.,  post  free 
is.  i\d.,  or  4s.  6d.  per  annum. 

Lotus  Blossoms,  a  little  book  on  Buddhism,  6d.,  post  free  yd.  Third 
and  Revised  Edition.  Designed  to  put  into  the  hands  of  those 
who  are  making  their  first  enquiries  in  the  religion  called  Buddhism, 
this  book  consists  mainly  of  short  extracts  from  the  actual  scrip- 
tures, translated  into  very  choice  English  prose  by  the  Bhikkhu 
Silacara.  The  translations  are  arranged  and  notes  added  in  such 
a  way  as  to  enable  the  reader  to  glance  briefly  at  practically  the 
whole  groundwork  of  the  Buddhist  system  of  mental  training. 

"  Subdue  the  angry  by  friendliness  ;  overcome  evil  with 
good  ;  conquer  those  that  are  greedy  by  liberality  and  the  liar 
with  the  speech  of  truth." 

Dhammapada  (from  "  Lotus  Blossoms"). 

Buddhism.  An  illustrated  Quarterly  Review.  Out  of  Print.  Only 
a  limited  number  of  copies  left ;  is.,  post  free  is.  3d. 

The  Word  of  the  Buddha.  An  outline  of  Buddhism  in  the  words 
of  the  Pali  Canon,  with  Notes,  by  Nyanatiloka  Thero.  Translated 
by  the  Bhikkhu  Silacara.     69  pp.     Price  6d.,  post  free,  j$d. 

"  This,  O  Brothers,  is  the  highest,  this  is  the  holiest  wisdom, 
namely,  to  know  that  all  suffering  has  vanished  away.  He  has 
found  the  true  deliverance  that  lies  beyond  the  reach  of  any 

Majjhima  140  (from  "  The  Word  of  the  Buddha  "  : 
Second  English  Edition). 

The  Dhammapada,  or  Way  of  Truth.  Prose  translation  by  the 
Bhikkhu  Silacara.     51  pp.     Price  6d.  (Members  qd.),  post  free  *j\d. 

Buddhism,  or  the  Religion  of  Burma,  by  Bhikkhu  Ananda  M. 
54  pp.     6d.,  post  free  y\d. 

Buddhism  and  Science,  by  Dr.  Ernest.     3d.,  post  free  $\d. 

An  Outline  of  Buddhism,  by  Bhikkhu  Ananda  Metteyya.  3d.,  post 
free  3\d. 

"  Leaves  from  the  Bo-Tree,"  being  extracts  from  the  authentic 
sayings  of  the  Buddha.  Handsomely  printed  on  best  ivory  post- 
cards, in  two  colours,  ornamented.  In  packets  of  six,  two  kinds, 
6d.  per  packet,  6s.  per  100. 

The  Essentials  of  the  Dhamma.  A  modern  exposition  of  Buddhism. 
3d.,  post  free  3\d. 

The  above-mentioned  publications  can  be  obtained  at  the  Sunday 
evening  meetings,  or  on  application  by  post  to  the  Secretary,  at 
Headquarters  : — 

43,  PENYWERN  ROAD,  S.W.  5  (close  to  Earls  Court  Station). 

Cfte  BucWDist  Societp  of  Great 
Britain  ana  Ireland* 


Patron  : 

Vice-Presidents  : 

PROF.   C.    R.   LANMAN. 

His  Excellency  PHYA  SUDHAM  MAITRI. 

Mrs.  M.  M.  HLA  OUNG  {Rangoon). 


Dr.  W.  A.  DE  SILVA,  J. P.  {Colombo). 

U  KYAW  YAN,  A.T.M.  {Mandalay). 

Vice-Presidents  who  have  filled  the  office  of  President  : 

PROF.  T.  W.  RHYS  DAVIDS,  LL.D.,  Ph.D. 

Mrs.  C.  F.  RHYS  DAVIDS,  M.A. 

Other  Members  of  the  Council  : 
Mrs.  AVERY  {Hon.  Secretary,  Liverpool  Branch). 
F.  E.  BALLS  {Hon.  Secretary  and  Treasurer,  pro.  tern.). 
The  Hon.  ERIC  C.  F.  COLLIER  {Hon.  Foreign  Secretary  &  Chairman). 


T.  W.  GOONEWARDENE  MUDALIYAR  {President,  Galle  Branch). 

Miss  HALE. 

Dr.  C.  A.  HEWAVITARNE  {Ceylon). 


Proctor  A.  D.  JAYASUNDERE  {Secretary,  Galle  Branch). 


C.  R.  PARRY  {Hon.  Editor). 

P.  OSWALD  REEVES  {Dublin). 


Bankers:    LONDON  &  SOUTH-WESTERN,  BANK,   Earls  Court, 

S.W.   5. 

Auditor  :  ERNEST  ANDRADE,  Chartered  Accountant. 

Headquarters : 

The  Buddhist  Review. 

Quarterly,  1 8. ;    Post  Free,  1s.  1  id. 

Readers  are  strongly  advised  to  secure  back  numbers  of 
the  "  Buddhist  Review  "  (80  pages)  containing  trans- 
lations from  the  Pali  Suttas,  of  which  the  following 
have  appeared  :— 

Dhaniya — A  Pali  Poem.  Translated  from  the  Sutta  Nipata  by  the 
Bhikkhu  Silacara.     3  pp. 

(Contained  in  the  Buddhist  Review,  Vol.  II.,  No.  2,  which  also 
contains  articles  by  Mr.  J.  T.  Lloyd,  The  Bhikkhu  Ananda 
Metteyya,  The  Bhikkhu  Sasana  Dhaja,  and  : 

The  Discourse  on  Burning.  Translated  from  the  Mahavagga  I.  21, 
by  Dr.  Francis  Mason,  D.D.) 

The  Parable  of  the  Saw.  Translated  from  the  Majjhima  Nikaya 
by  the  Bhikkhu  Silacara.     9  pp. 

"  Yea,  disciples,  even  if  highway  robbers  with  a  two-handed  saw 
should  take  and  dismember  you  limb  by  limb,  whoso  grew  darkened  in 
mind  thereby  would  not  be  fulfilling  my  injunctions.  Even  then, 
disciples,  thus  must  you  school  yourselves  :  '  Unsullied  shall  our 
minds  remain,  neither  shall  evil  word  escape  our  lips.'  Kind 
and  compassionate  ever,  we  will  abide  loving  of  heart  nor  harbour 
secret  hate." 

(Contained  in  Vol.  II.,  No.  2,  which  also  contains  articles  by 
Mrs.  C.  A.  F.  Rhys  Davids,  M.A.,  Mr.  A.  D.  Howell  Smith,  B.A., 

The  Parable  of  the  Snake.  Translated  from  the  Majjhima  Nikaya 
by  the  Bhikkhu  Silacara,  14  pp. 

Contains  the  famous  "  Raft  "  simile,  which  is  one  of  the  most 
widely  known  portions  of  the  doctrine.  This  Sutta  is  one  of  the 
most  important  in  the  whole  Pali  Canon. 

"  Sateless  are  desires,"  the  Blessed  One  has  said,  "  full  of  suffering, 
full  of  despair,  altogether  wretched.  A  scrap  of  fles  h  which  a  bird 
of  prey  must  part  with  if  it  would  not  be  torn  in  pieces  of  its  fellows 
— a  pit  of  live  coals,  the  which  a  man  about  10  be  thrown  therein  must 
struggle  10  escape — a  dream  which  evanishes  upon  the  dreamer's 

These  Buddhist  Reviews  can  be  purchased,  price  is.  i\d.,  post  free, 
and  it  is  the  experience  of  not  a  few,  that  no  work  forms  a  better 
introduction  to  Buddhism,  or  excites  more  interest,  than  translations 
from  the  actual  Suttas.  They  should  be  found  in  every  Dagaba-  or 
Pagoda-Temple  and  rest-house  throughout  Buddhist  Countries  which 
is  visited  by  English-speaking  travellers. 

The  "  Parable  of  the  Saw  "  is  specially  designed  for  the  suppression 
of  ill-will,  and  the  "  Parable  of  the  Snake  "  for  the  destruction  of 

Application  Form  for  Membership, 

T§  the  Secretary, 




43,   Penywern    Road,    Earls   Court,   London,   S  W.  5. 

I  herewith  send  being  my 

(*)  Fellow 

Subscription  as 


and  desire   that   I    may   be   elected  to   the   Society   in   that 




Occupation  or  Qualification 

*  The  Annual  Subscription  payable  by  Fellows  is  £1  is.  ;  that  payable 
by  Associates  10s.  6d. 

I  enclose  (1)  4s.  6d.  as  subscription  to  the  Buddhist  Review  ; 
(2)  in  payment  for  the  following  publications,  or  as  a 

donation  to  the  following  Fund 



Date 4 

14  DAY  USE 


This  book  is  due  on  the  last  date  stamped  below,  or 

on  the  date  to  which  renewed. 

Renewed  books  are  subject  to  immediate  recall. 


JAN  %  1  2003 



-— *- 

- — - 



— —rr 


FFB    4  1963 

LD  21A-50m-8,'57 

General  Library 

University  of  California